Relax Lawyers, Nick Szabo Says Smart Contracts Won’t Kill Jobs

No, smart contracts will not rid the world of lawyers, despite the greatest efforts of blockchain innovators. At least, that’s according to Nick Szabo, the man widely credited with inventing the smart contract concept itself.

During the keynote address at the Smart Contracts Symposium at Microsoft’s New York headquarters this week, Szabo gave an update on the industry he helped create – a talk that was followed by a string of commenters from smart contract professionals.

Addressing a group of about 250 people (comprised largely of members of the blockchain trade association, the Chamber of Digital Commerce), Szabo broke down the potential benefits and what he sees as the current limits of self-executing code run on a cryptographic, shared ledger.

Szabo said:

“Lawyers worried about losing their jobs to robots, you’re actually doing something that’s mostly complimentary to a smart contract. Smart contracts are mostly making possible new things that haven’t been done before.”

Crucial differences between traditional contracts and smart contracts are that the logic in traditional law is based on the “subjective” interpretation of analogy, according to Szabo. On the other hand, blockchain smart contracts are based on Boolean “bits and logic” that underpin bitcoin.

There are also differences on the global scale, he went on.

While traditional law falls into “jurisdictional silos” defined by state borders and other lines of demarcation, blockchain-powered contract law has the potential to exist across borders.

The result is that while traditional law is relatively flexible, involving interpretation and judgment (and can therefore be corrupted), a software version is “rigid and predictable”.

“Traditional law is manual, local and often uncertain,” said Szabo, who is also the co-founder of cryptographic assets firm, Global Financial Access. “Public blockchains are automated, global and predicable in their operations.”

While the jobs of lawyers may be safe for now, other professions might not be so lucky.

Creative destruction

In fact, smart contract law is so different from traditional law that, instead of lawyers’ jobs being at risk, it’s those in other industries with repeatable tasks with the most to lose.

Speaking on a panel covering smart contract platforms and applications, Marley Gray, Microsoft principle architect in charge of blockchain engineering, said that smart contracts elevate the “distributed resolution of the truth” first enabled by the bitcoin blockchain.

For contract designers dealing in this new distributed way of reconciling such complex processes, the hard part will be to not get trapped into thinking in terms of encoding existing processes into a blockchain, Gray said.

“People have a hard time unlearning what they’ve been brought up to do,” he explained. “Sometimes the best thing to do is completely destroy a business process.”

Bloq CEO Jeff Garzik echoed the notion that business workflows need to be entirely reinvented from the ground up.

But he took the idea further, arguing that the reimagined workflow won’t just impact how businesses function internally, but how they do business with each other.

“Blockchain is adjudication as a service,” said Garzik, a former BitPay employee. “It validates rules that are common to the entire playing field. It’s very much a hyper-real-time version of the court system.

IBM fellow and vice president of blockchain technologies Jerry Cuomo summarized the push to reimagine business workflows far beyond law:

“When folks really start to step back and think about business processes as a decentralized sport, as a team sport, it completely changes the possibilities of how you do a KYC and AML.”

Language choice

While smart contracts are in their earliest phases of development, large-scale failures have helped to define issues that should be avoided.

In addition to Szabo’s review of the state of smart contracts, he discussed the forward to a white paper published that day and distributed to event attendees, titled “Smart Contracts: 12 Use Cases for Business & Beyond“.

Prepared by the Smart Contracts Alliance, an initiative of the Chamber in collaboration with Deloitte, the paper describes smart contract implementations ranging from the automatic compliance of the destruction of records to instantaneous processing of auto insurance.

The paper positions smart contracts on a spectrum ranging from contracts “entirely” written in code to “natural language” contracts with encoded payment mechanisms.

To Szabo, the safest way to execute such contracts would be the bitcoin blockchain, which he called the “most reliable financial system that’s ever been deployed”.

In spite of the current limitations of the bitcoin network for supporting smart contracts, in Szabo’s forward to the white paper he described his ideal smart contract deployment as rather complimentary to its current abilities:

“My personal favorite and most exciting type of smart contract is constructed in peer-to-peer environments, from simple natural language by individuals to operate between individuals.”

比特幣的價格受到支持並將在十二月達到$1500美金

技術指標顯示,比特幣價格正在準備一個大的,向上的運動,中間支持增長700美元。

BITCOIN價格技術分析

長期分析

bitcoin-november-27th-long-768x577

價格已經支持700美元,而橫向市場 – 以前估計在更高的水平 – 目前正在播放。

一個大的搖籃形成表明,下一個階段將帶來一個向上的運動,技術目標約1100美元。如果這個預測是真實的,欣快的泡沫活動可能會推高價格到12月$ 1500。

中期分析

bitcoin-november-27th-mid-768x575

比特幣交易量已經收縮,允許任何增加觸發價格上升。這個運動預計是按照搖籃形式,這已經打破了上面。

該組織的基地現在為另一個100點投射了一個新的攀登場景,達到以前的技術目標,在820美元。現在,這一目標已經成為一個確定區域,公牛將價格提高一倍。

短期分析

bitcoin-november-27th-near-768x575

價格壓力了當前橫向市場的阻力,沒有任何量維持預期的攀升。

根據指標,任何增加的數量可以驅動行動到看漲的情況。日本燭台分析表明,中間支持水平可能在700美元。

我們相信市場已經開始建立支持在730美元的水平,維持在該水平的價格,從750美元下降。我們認為支持將繼續在這一水平上建設,並將最終在不久的將來在某個時候打破上升 – 可能在假日後。

我們不確定比特幣價格是否會在12月之前上升到1500美元,但我們認為這項技術分析的預測最終會相對準確。

為什麼摩根大通正在構建以太坊的區塊鏈

它被稱為“Quorum”。
摩根大通公司正在開發一種稱為以太坊的加密網絡上的區塊鏈(通常稱為公共分類帳)。

該系統,被稱為“Quorum”,旨在衍生工具和付款的領域中打破私人和公共之間的界線。這個想法是滿足那些需要無間斷訪問財務狀況的監管機構,同時保護不希望向公眾披露其身份或其交易細節的當事人的隱私。

JP摩根的區塊鏈領導人Amber Baldet在Hyperledger項目的技術指導委員會會議上介紹了該項目,該項目是上個月底合作研究區塊鏈技術的Linux基金會的一年一度的拍攝。她說團隊選擇了與以太坊合作,儘管以太坊最近有些挑戰,比如最近的黑客事件,但因為它已經運行了一段時間,銀行都熟悉它。

不像開放、免費的比特幣,任何有計算機的人都可以參與網絡,運行Quorum的節點必須從一些更高的權限才能加入。在許多銀行家看來,這個網關防止腐敗或惡意的操作員進入系統。批評者則反對,因為開放區塊鏈的主要好處:使不信任的各方互動。

在實踐中,J.P. Morgan的Quorum是Go Ethereum客戶端的一個修改,它是一個支持Ethereum網絡的流行軟件程序。 Quorum具有更新的共識機制,不同的計算機在網絡上的交易的順序和合法性的過程由Jeffrey Wilcke創建,他是Ethereum的創始人和Go的開發人員之一。

實際上,Quorum對單個區塊鏈有兩層共識,這意味著兩種方式達成關於其事務記錄的協議,這兩種方式存儲在一個分佈式數據庫或區塊鏈上。第一層驗證公共數據,第二層驗證私人細節。

摩根大通公司和投資銀行集團的工程主管David Voell在Hyperledger演講中說:“我們獲得了兩個世界的最好的結果。該技術將私有事務數據交換為加密散列,該數據的壓縮和加擾版本,隱藏其真實內容。公共和私人數據都駐留在區塊鏈上,但是它們被單獨解析。”

“這一切的關鍵,是一個單一的區塊鏈讓大家可以不斷檢查其完整性,然而仍然有一個私人和公眾之間的明確分離,”他補充說。

J.P. Morgan還從事了一個名為Juno的項目,這是另一個分佈式分類帳,強調其設計中的可擴展性。與此同時,許多公司正在建設私人區塊鏈,包括R3,Chain和Digital Asset Holdings。

“我們有人在世界上建立最強壓力測試的金融系統,”Baldet告訴華爾街日報。 “我們的企業專長[區塊鏈]將會是我們的優勢之一。”

J.P.摩根代表在電話會議上說,他們計劃在年底之前開源Quorum背後的文檔和代碼庫。

Walmart tries using blockchain to take unsafe food off shelves

It could pull bacteria-laden produce before you have a chance to buy it.

It’s scary when stores have to pull unsafe food. It can take days to pinpoint the batch or supplier that caused the problem, which could lead to people getting sick… or at best, force the store to yank more products than necessary. Walmart believes technology could offer a better way. It’s trying out blockchain’s distributed ledger as a means of identifying the sources of poisonous food. Digital receipts for the food identify everyone in the supply chain, ranging from the original location through to the inspectors and shipping companies. If everything passing through a specific warehouse is making people ill, Walmart can identify that troublesome food and yank it within minutes — and there’s no easy way for unscrupulous suppliers to alter the info.

It’s a modest test run at the moment. Walmart is only using blockchain to track both pork in China and a “packaged produced item” in the US. Provided the trial run goes smoothly, though, you’ll see the tech used for more items.

Walmart isn’t conducting this experiment purely out of concern for customer safety, as you might guess — this is a company at once famous and notorious for its cost-cutting measures. Blockchain could keep more products on sale in the event of a bacterial outbreak, and refine the supply chain by identifying recurring safety issues or slowdowns. All told, the big-box store could save money even as it saves you from a trip to the hospital.

數字貨幣將改變全球貨幣版圖

貨幣變革和大國命運

七十年前的1944年,二次世界大戰基本結束,由於戰爭的重創,大英帝國從全球霸主地位滑落,從債權國逐步淪為債務國,美國則一躍成為全球最大的債權國,擁有著世界上最多的黃金儲備(占全球官方黃金總儲備的59%),以及完整的金融運作方案(包括成立世界銀行和國際貨幣基金組織等計劃)。

1944年7月在美國新罕布什爾州的布萊頓森林,全球44個國家通過了由美國主導的協議,這一協議將美元跟黃金掛鉤,其他貨幣跟美元掛鉤。英鎊最終讓位於美元,美元從此取代英鎊成為全球唯一的儲備、結算和貿易貨幣。

七十年後的今天,得益於改革開放、全球貿易,以及美國債務的擴張,中國已逐步成為全球最大的債權國,但由於已經固化的全球性美元運行體系,人民幣的國際化推進緩慢。在現有經濟和貿易體系下,中國要在新世紀創造人民幣版的布萊頓森林體系,幾乎是不可能的,美國甚至連中國發起的“亞投行”都不想參加。

不過全球經濟對美元主導的貨幣體系,也十分不滿,每一次美元周期性波動,全球所承受的風險和損失最大,而美國總是能夠化險為夷。接受美元作為國際貨幣,很大成分已經變成了“被動”和“脅迫”。然而,以一種主權信用貨幣取代另一種主權信用貨幣來充當國際貨幣的邏輯本身已經不具吸引力,人民幣所要面對的,是全球各國,以及所有民眾對新型貨幣的變革需求。

只有數字貨幣具備取代美元的條件

2008年的美國金融危機再次衝擊了全球經濟,仰仗著美元的全球購買和融資能力,美國以極低的成本刺激經濟,很快從金融危機的陰霾中復蘇,但全球經濟再也回不到2008年前的增長水平。尤其是近兩年來,隨著美元的持續走強,各國不得不以無限度的本幣貶值來應對資本外流,以及經濟的低迷。

到底什麼樣的貨幣能夠跨越這種周期性和主權性陷阱,似乎除了黃金,沒有其他的貨幣能夠充當如此可靠的角色,但黃金由於實物屬性太強,扮演交易媒介的成本較高,再加上美聯儲等各國央行對黃金再次扮演貨幣角色一致反對,導致黃金的貨幣屬性可能被長期壓制。

隨著科技的發展,尤其是互聯網技術的突飛猛進,直接改變了世界原本一些固化的邏輯。人們不僅開始利用互聯網維護自身的權益,也開始利用互聯網創造一些,本應該由政府來創造的東西。2008年的金融危機,再一次讓全球民眾看到了紙幣的缺陷,真正意義上的數字貨幣正是誕生於2008年,一個叫中本聰的人,發明了一種支付方式,這種支付方式不僅不需要銀行這種的中介機構,甚至可以不需要央行來提供交易媒介(貨幣)。

如今,比特幣的名字已家喻戶曉,全球數百萬民眾正以空前的熱情關注著比特幣的發展和未來。基於比特幣的數字貨幣加密技術,以及分布式區塊鏈技術,已經吸引了全球包括中國央行,以及高盛、摩根等專業機構的參與。

有人認為,比特幣是人類有史以來,真正意義上用技術手段,而不是法律手段,實現了“私有財產”聖神不可侵犯。正是這種觸動民眾心扉的技術手段,產生了強大的信賴感,比特幣開始迅速流通至全球。目前比特幣市值已超過100億美元,每日交易量超過10億美元,堪比一家爆發性上漲的上市公司。

對於中國來說,人民幣國際化的真正意義,並不是要從歷史的角度去取代美元,成為第二個美元.就算真有一天取代了美元,最終的結果也並不是一個理想化或可持續的發展路徑。未來取代美元的,肯定不是第二個類似美元的貨幣,就像取代黃金作為世界貨幣的,是美元這種紙質的信用貨幣,而不是另一個金屬貨幣。

未來能夠打敗美元的,應該是一種超越美元信用,或者說是超越其便捷性、公平性和信任度的貨幣。暫時看,只有基於加密技術和區塊鏈等架構之下的數字貨幣可以從理論和實踐層面,擺脫固有的美元體系,達到取代美元的標准。

數字貨幣對於中國來說,意義重大

研究數字貨幣,對於美國來說,可能僅僅是一種改善美元經濟體系的一種錦上添花,而對於中國來說,這是一次重大的歷史機會,如果錯過這次機會,無論中國經濟強大到何種程度(像上個世紀八、九十年代的日本),最終結果依然可能是人民幣將不得不像日元一樣,成為美元的終身影子貨幣。唯一可以等待的就是美國出現大的動蕩,美元退出歷史舞台,但這種等待似乎時間成本太高了。因此,研究數字貨幣,實際上也是給人民幣未來尋找更大的出路和更多的可能性。

近日(2016年11月9日),中國央行在其網站上發布了一則招聘公告,旗下“中國人民銀行印制科學研究所”招聘三個崗位,分別是負責關於數字貨幣及相關底層平台的軟硬件系統的架構設計和開發工作,以及研究數字貨幣中所使用的關鍵密碼技術,對稱、非對稱密碼算法、認證和加密等。要求具備系統架構設計經驗、區塊鏈技術開發或應用經驗、大數據平台開發經驗者。

關於“中國人民銀行印制科學研究所”這個機構,可以稍微解釋一下。其創建於1959年8月,隸屬中國人民銀行總行,是鈔票印制專業科研單位,以應用開發研究為主,兼顧應用基礎研究。設有油墨、制版、鈔紙、防偽技術、印鈔機械設計等研究室和制版及印鈔實驗車間。是全國唯一的以證券的印制、防偽新技術為內容的研究開發科研單位。

也就是說,關於中國央行發行數字貨幣這一問題,已經進入到了落實階段,而不是簡單的前期調研或討論。因為中國人民銀行印制科學研究所所負責的,是如何具體實現鈔票的發行和印制,以及防偽工作。這是貨幣發行的最後一個環節,完成了這個步驟,“鈔票”就將進入到社會流通領域。

中國央行為什麼要發行數字貨幣,有三方面考慮:

1.戰略

關於戰略,前文中已經講了不少,未來人民幣跟美元等主權信用貨幣之間的博弈,牽扯到全球金融紅利的最終分配情況,中國肯定不滿足於僅僅停留在分享人口貿易紅利階段,而金融紅利需要強大的貨幣信用和金融結算網絡來支撐。

美元就算走到窮途末路,人民幣結算系統也很難在結算和支付方面對美元系統取而代之,因為交易習慣要改變起來是非常困難的,除非完全顛覆原有的交易模式。這就好比說,如今的微軟公司什麼都不做,每年也有足夠的專利收入,足以把比爾蓋茨固定在世界富豪榜的前幾位。

這也是為什麼人民幣跨境支付系統(CIPS)已上線很長時間了,但是從更長遠的角度看難以撼動SWIFT系統(環球同業銀行金融電訊協會)的原因,因為其從實際層面並沒有超越SWIT的所有功能和模式,無法改變使用者的習慣。

然而,世界就是這麼奇妙,就在此時,偉大的數字貨幣試驗開始了。基於加密、去中心化、區塊鏈分布式等數字貨幣技術,完全顛覆了SWIFT系統等原有結算系統的邏輯,是唯一能夠完全取代現有全球美元結算系統,獨立運行的一種技術。

比特幣僅僅是一個試驗,目前看比特幣所轄區塊鏈的容量和效率,根本無法支撐全球金融貿易結算,但其運行的安全性和穩定性,以及參與的積極性,遠遠超出貨幣研究者的想像。因此,從戰略上投入對數字貨幣的研究和在國內盡快進行試驗,有助於未來應用於國際市場,對於人民幣,乃至中國金融領域的崛起,都有非常重大的戰略意義的。

2.趨勢

自2000年以來,中國的貨幣發行量(M2)從13萬億上升到了目前的150萬億,但流通中的現鈔(M0)占比則越來越低。2000年的時候,M0占M2的比例是13%,目前M0占M2的比例僅僅只有4%。也就是說,我們每發行100塊錢的貨幣,實際上真正被印刷成紙幣的,只有4塊錢,其他96塊錢都是以記賬的形式存在,說白了僅僅就是一個放在各類金融賬戶上的一個數字。

貨幣的數字化,已經成為一個趨勢,三年前,沒有人能夠想到,如今可以拿著一部手機,下載一個微信或支付寶,就能隨時隨地收、付款,持有現鈔的需求已越來越少。

不僅僅是中國,全球也在面臨同樣的趨勢,瑞典央行統計的數字顯示,自2009年以來,瑞典紙質鈔票的流通量已經下滑了40%,正在考慮發行數字貨幣,並將現鈔在流通領域退出。實際上早在去年年中,丹麥政府就公布了一系列動議,其中包含一項推進無現金社會的計劃,商店和服務場所可以選擇完全的無現金交易,零售商應獲准僅接受移動支付和信用卡支付。丹麥有可能成為第一個無現金的國家。

貨幣的無紙化是一個趨勢,這種無紙化有兩重含義,一個是將現有貨幣電子化,另一個是完全改變系統,發行新的數字貨幣,以取代現有貨幣。前一種沒有太大的技術含量,僅僅是一種使用方式的轉變,而後一種是直接改變貨幣供給和管理方式,這也是發行數字貨幣最大的挑戰。

對於中國來說,僅僅貨幣的電子化,是難以滿足未來需求的,無論從安全性的角度考慮,還是人民幣國際化的角度考慮,僅僅的電子化依然無法擺脫中央結算系統,無法在國際市場產生競爭優勢和高於美元的信任度,後者才是方向和終點。

3.現實

今年年初,中國農業銀行爆出“票據案”,涉及金額高達40億元。其員工涉嫌非法套取38億元票據,同時利用非法套取的票據進行回購資金,且未建立台賬,回購款其中相當部分資金違規流入股市,而由於股價下跌,出現巨額資金缺口無法兌付。緊接著,中信銀行、天津銀行、齊魯銀行等都有類似的狀況爆出。後來,央行籌建建立票據交易平台來解決這個問題,在未來兩到三年內紙質票據全部退出市場。但從目前的情況看,票據交易平台無法解決信息不對稱的問題,其效率可能不會提升太多,監管方面也很難有明顯改善。

目前看,中國的數字貨幣,尤其是央行正准備發行的數字貨幣,很有可能首先會在票據市場做一個嘗試,這種分布式區塊鏈支付技術,能夠完整的紀錄所有交易和所有去向,不依賴於單一的交易平台,無法篡改。要知道,如果數字貨幣能夠首先在票據交易市場實現,那離真正的社會化數字貨幣就不遠了,因為僅工行一家銀行,其每年的票據交易量就超過10萬億,如果能夠滿足這個數量級的交易,數字貨幣就成功了一半。而這對於類似比特幣一樣的區塊鏈技術來說,是一個極大的突破,比特幣這個數量級暫時是無法滿足這種交易需求的。

時不我待:

今年七月份,美國眾議院代表提出,呼吁美國政府為相關技術制定國家政策,特別提到了數字貨幣和區塊鏈。9月份,美國眾議院代表們通過了一項不具約束力的決議,呼吁制定國家技術創新政策,政策中包括支持數字貨幣和區塊鏈技術的言論。雖然該決議還不具約束力,但也是歷史性的。支持數字貨幣和區塊鏈的議案通過了美國國會投票,眾議院成員對技術有著真正的興趣。

近幾年發展速度較快的新加坡,日前做出決定,准備成為最新測試本國數字貨幣的中央銀行,這種數字貨幣將會在該機構的區塊鏈系統試驗中用於銀行間支付,目的在於簡化跨行支付流程和降低交易成本,參與者包括新加坡股票交易所和8家銀行。

實際上全球排名前10的交易所、金融機構和投行大部分已經介入到了對區塊鏈技術和數字貨幣的開發研究當中。中國正處在彎道超車階段,應該大膽嘗試各種新的突破性技術,如果等到其他市場將數字貨幣推向全球貿易和交易系統的時候,國際金融交易版圖的再次改變,或許中國分到的羹又是最後一杯了。(文/肖磊)

Bitcoin on Boulevard: 25 Shops in Paris Ready to Accept Bitcoin For Payment

Starting on Nov. 17, merchants at the Passage du Grand Cerf will be the first Parisian marketplace to accept Bitcoin, with 20 shops already preparing for its acceptance. These shops will be added to Paris’s growing list of Bitcoin-accepting shops and will be accepting both fiat and Bitcoin with the help of several Bitcoin groups.

The Passage and Bitcoin

With the help of France’s Cercle du Coin Bitcoin club and La Maison du Bitcoin by Ledger, the merchants of the Passage are welcoming Bitcoin as an additional and alternative way to pay without suffering heavy fees and rates for transactions, thanks to Bitcoin’s P2P system.

However, the merchants are not expecting to make huge profits with Bitcoin but want to tell Bitcoin owners in Paris that there are more places to spend it at and not just online stores.

Jacques Favier, Secretary of La Cercle du Bitcoin told Cointelegraph:

“There were already restaurants, bars and various shops in France that welcomed Bitcoin, but we thought that a boulevard  (it turned to be a gallery ) in the very heart of Paris would give more visibility to one very simple idea : Bitcoin is for paying. There has been so much noise, you know, about the Blockchain technology which is behind Bitcoin, and will go far beyond payment that some of us thought it was important to recall that Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer digital cash.”

Presently, the Passage itself has a Bitcoin ATM and with Le Cercle having multiple Bitcoin company-members, the shops in the Passage will have no problem in asking for support and guidance. Since BitPay is one of the partners in this “boulevard” project, shops have the choice of either accepting payment in Bitcoin or exchange immediately to fiat, giving them the option of accepting Bitcoin with fiat’s acceptance advantages.

Passage du Grand Cerf

The Parisian Gallery is a protected historical monument in Paris and houses 25 shops including a restaurant, creative workshops and shops selling “creator’s master pieces, trendy decorative pieces, fashion and sophisticated accessories and a wild selection of unique or collector pieces.”

Favier adds:

“The Passage is an experience. We hope it will give a smart idea of Bitcoin to visitors who were just afraid of it because of dirty gossips. For us, as supporters, or for the participating merchants, building a community, meeting people, sharing ideas … all these things are of the essence! ”

Encouraging Bitcoin-acceptance

With the Passage du Grand Cerf accepting Bitcoin, this could promote the cryptocurrency and its payment benefits to other merchants around the world. Shopify already added the payment option using BitPay and other services such as BitWage and BigCommerce want to bridge the gap between fiat and Bitcoin.

Bitcoin is gaining traction not only in Europe but in India as well. India recently modified its currency, the Indian Rupee, and people are looking into alternatives to the Rupee, specifically Bitcoin. The shift from the Rupee to Bitcoin in India resulted in a 20 percent increase in BTC trading in India and might bring Bitcoin into the street markets of India.

青政眾籌訟費 比特幣照收

【東方日報專訊】【本報訊】青年新政游蕙禎及梁頌恆在立法會宣誓案被法院裁定喪失立法會議員資格,兩人表明上訴並在網上發起眾籌訟費,方式包括Paypal帳戶、電子支票、銀行轉帳,惟Paypal帳戶已被凍結。兩人繼續在社交網站籌款,多個收集捐款的方式更包括虛擬貨幣Bitcoin(比特幣)。日前港人民權民生黨主席蕭思江已質疑青政眾籌或涉及包攬訴訟或助訟,要求當局跟進。身兼律師的立法會議員周浩鼎昨亦指出,助訟及包攬訴訟可以有抗辯理由,但眾籌打官司依然有風險。

或涉助訟包攬訴訟罪行

周浩鼎指出,雖然終審法院承認助訟及包攬訴訟目前是有抗辯理由可作考慮,但游、梁眾籌仍然有機會觸犯助訟及包攬訴訟罪行。他又表示,游、梁兩人已毫無誠信,且一直有人懷疑他們有境外支援,對兩人籌錢打官司感到奇怪,亦質疑他們籌到的錢是否真的用於打官司上。

前立法局主席黃宏發昨在電台節目中就表示,對於日前法院已作裁決的游、梁司法覆核案,他不相信法官完全沒有受到人大釋法的影響,認為法院應尊重不干預立法機關事務原則,裁定由立法會主席梁君彥決定兩人宣誓是否有效。他又指,對梁君彥以沒勝算為由放棄上訴有保留,如他任主席必定會提出上訴。

1120-00176-022b1

[Watch] It (2017) Full Movie

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  • It (2017)

  • Director
    Andy Muschietti.
    Producer
    Seth Grahame-Smith, David Katzenberg, Roy Lee, Dan Lin, Barbara Muschietti.
  • Production Company
    New Line Cinema, Vertigo Entertainment, Lin Pictures, RatPac-Dune Entertainment, KatzSmith Productions.
    Release
    August 17, 2017
  • Country
    United States of America.
    Language
    English.
  • Runtime
    135min
    Genre
    Horror.

Synopsis

Watch It (2017) Full Movie Online Free. Movie ‘It’ was released in August 17, 2017 in genre Horror. Andy Muschietti was directed this movie and starring by Jaeden Lieberher. This movie tell story about In a small town in Maine, seven children known as The Losers Club come face to face with life problems, bullies and a monster that takes the shape of a clown called Pennywise.

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It (2017) Full [Movie]

[Watch] It (2017) Full Movie Online
  • It (2017)

  • Director
    Andy Muschietti.
    Producer
    Seth Grahame-Smith, David Katzenberg, Roy Lee, Dan Lin, Barbara Muschietti.
  • Production Company
    New Line Cinema, Vertigo Entertainment, Lin Pictures, RatPac-Dune Entertainment, KatzSmith Productions.
    Release
    August 17, 2017
  • Country
    United States of America.
    Language
    English.
  • Runtime
    135min
    Genre
    Horror.

Synopsis

Watch It (2017) Full Movie Online Free. ‘It’ is a movie genre Horror, was released in August 17, 2017. Andy Muschietti was directed this movie and starring by Jaeden Lieberher. This movie tell story about In a small town in Maine, seven children known as The Losers Club come face to face with life problems, bullies and a monster that takes the shape of a clown called Pennywise.

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